Gingivitis & Gum Disease Treatments

Gingivitis (inflamed and bleeding gums) is a common problem due to non- hygienic situations of unsufficient teeth cleaning and brushing.

Classical signs of gingivitis :

  • Swelling of the gums
  • The gums look red (instead of having a pink color).
    Please, observe that a smoker with severe gingivitis, will show all the classical signs of inflammation with one exception, the gums will still look pale; none or very little inflammation (redness) of the gums will be seen.
  • The gums bleed when you brush your teeth. In severe cases, even chewing of food might cause bleeding from the gums.
  • Pain or discomfort from the gums, especially when brushing.

The most common cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene. Good oral hygien  such as daily brushing (at least morning & evening) and flossing (at least once a day; preferably at night, after the brushing), prevents gingivitis.

In the absence of treatment, gingivitis may progress to periodontitis (periodontal disease), where bacteria break down the bone, which support the teeth. For optimal oral health, a team approach is required, involving the dentist but even more so the patient.

Periodontitis (gum disease)

Left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis (gum disease), which by its nature is destructive to the bone around the teeth, thereby, loosening the teeth. In severe cases, teeth can actually fall out, as there is no bone left holding them.

Gum disease (periodontal disease) is the major cause for losing teeth in adults. Typical symptoms of periodontal disease are:

  • Dark red gums
  • Bleeding of the gums
  • Soreness in the gums
  • Swelling of the gums
  • Pus around teeth
  • Spaces appearing between teeth
  • Receding gums
  • Persistent bad breath
  • Sore teeth when chewing

It is also possible to have gum disease with no symptoms, which can be identified  with the X-rays.

Scaling & Polishing

This is a special cleaning of your teeth, which removes calculus (tartar) and stains.

At your scale and polish appointment, our dentist will make a careful assessment of the condition of your gums. Your teeth will then be scaled, using an ultrasonic scaler which removes the calculus and the stains from your teeth. The teeth are then polished, leaving them clean and smooth. This makes it easier for you to keep them clean at home.

It is important to see your dentist regularly for scaling and polishing but also that you brush and floss your teeth carefully every day.

If your gums are inflamed, swollen and bleed when you brush your teeth and maybe even when you eat, you most likely have gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) that is  mainly caused by inadequate oral hygiene. Maybe you do not spend enough time brushing your teeth, or you do not brush them properly. Perhaps you do not floss your teeth properly or even floss them at all.

Dental plaque is a sticky, whitish substance made up of bacteria and food debris, which is built up on your teeth and the gum margin. The different bacteria in the dental plaque release toxins which irritate the gingiva (gums). The longer dental plaque is left on the teeth, the harder it becomes, due to continuous accumulation of minerals from the saliva into the dental plaque. Already after 24 hours, some dental plaque will be hardened into calculus (tartar). You cannot remove tartar just by brushing or flossing your teeth, but a dentist or dental hygienist can remove it. This procedure is called scaling. The scaling and polishing removes calculus and stains from for example, coffee, tea, cigarettes or red wine and it makes it more difficult for plaque to stick to your teeth again, as the teeth are all smooth afterwards.

Ultrasonic scaler

An ultrasonic scaler is an electronic instrument which transmits high-frequency vibrations (from 25,000 to 40,000 cycles per second) to a small metallic tip inserted into a hand piece. With this instrument hard deposits (calculus) can easily be removed from the surface of a tooth.


Orthodontic / Invisalign Treatments

There is only one good, biological way to correct crooked teeth, and that is with Orthodontic treatment, with braces. In its simplest form a dental brace consists of brackets, small entities bonded (glued) to the teeth. The brackets are connected to a wire along which the teeth are being moved.

The advantages of using braces to correct crooked teeth are:

  • It gives the healthiest result.
  • Once the Orthodontic treatment has been done, there is no maintenance needed.
  • In order to minimize the risk for a relapse, once the teeth have been straightened, a very thin metal wire (retainer) is bonded (glued) behind the front teeth in each jaw that has been treated.

A possible disadvantage with having Orthodontic treatment (wearing dental braces) is the time factor. In general, one can say that the more crooked your teeth are the longer time is needed to properly align the teeth. Also, in general, Orthodontic treatment takes somewhat longer in adults, because the jaw bone is harder (more mineralized).

Invisaling Treetments

Invisaling treatment allows you to transform your smile discreetly and comfortably with virtually-invisable, removable braces.

Invisaling Treatment is the clear alternative to metal braces for all ages. Invisaling aligners are completly transparent and custom-made to gradually straighten your teeth without using any metal wires or brackets.

The aligners look like clear, flexible retainers and are removable, so you can take them out when eating or brushing your teeth.

By using the aligners properly the teeth begin moving slowly and graduataly will progress towards their projected final position.


Laser in Dentistry


A laser is an instrument that produces a very narrow, intense beam of light energy. When laser light comes in contact with tissue, it causes a reaction. The light produced by the laser can remove or shape tissue.

Lasers have been used in dentistry since 1990. Lasers can be used as a safe and effective treatment for a wide range of dental procedures and are often used in conjunction with other dental instruments.

Dental lasers can be used to:

• Reduce the discomfort of cancer and  may heal the mouth sores.

• Expose partially erupted wisdom teeth.

• Remove muscle attachments that limit proper movement.

• Manage gum tissue during impressions for crowns or other procedures.

• Remove overgrown tissues caused by certain medications.

• Perform biopsy procedures with little bleeding process.

• Remove inflamed gum tissues and aid in the treatment of gum disease.

• Remove or reshape gum and bone tissues during crown lengthening procedures.

• Help healing of infections in root canals

• Speed up tooth whitening procedure.

There are several advantages of lasers like dentists may not need to use a drill or administer anesthesia in some procedures, allowing the patient to enjoy a more relaxed dental experience. Laser procedures can be more precise. Also, lasers can reduce symptoms and healing times associated with traditional therapies; reduce the amount of bacteria in both diseased gum tissue and in tooth cavities; and control bleeding during surgery.

If the dental laser is used according to accepted practices by a trained practitioner, then it is at least as safe as other dental instruments. However, just as you wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from prolonged exposure to the sun, when your dentist performs a laser procedure, you will be asked to wear special eyeglasses to protect your eyes from the laser.


Root Canal Treatment

Endodontic treatment (root canal treatment) is necessary when the nerve (pulp), the soft tissue inside the root canal, becomes inflamed or infected. The inflammation or infection can have a variety of causes: deep caries (decay), repeated dental procedures on the tooth, or a crack in the tooth. In addition, a trauma to a tooth may cause nerve damage even if the tooth has no visible chip or crack. If nerve inflammation is left untreated, it causes pain and can lead to an abscess.

Signs to look for include:

  • Pain
  • Prolonged sensitivity to heat or cold
  • Tenderness when touching the tooth
  • Darkening of the tooth
  • Swelling and tenderness in surrounding bone and soft tissue.

You may not feel any pain in the early stages of the infection. In some cases, your tooth could become darker, which normally indicates that the nerve in the tooth is dying or is dead. This means that a root canal treatment is needed. If the pulp (nerve) becomes infected, the infection may spread through the root canal system of the tooth into the surrounding bone. This may eventually lead to an abscess. An abscess is an infected area in which pus has collected, which causes swelling of the tissue around the tooth. The tooth may be tender when you bite on it and often there is a dull ache; however, at times there is no pain at all. If a root canal treatment is not carried out, the infection will spread and the tooth may need to be removed. The purpose of the root canal treatment is to remove infection in the root canal. Later, when there are no more symptoms from the tooth or at least the symptoms have radically subsided, the root canal is sealed with root filling material (root filling) to prevent any further infection.


Oral Surgery

We can do all kind of oral surgery in our clinic with the latest dental technology like ;

Tooth extractions,wisdom tooth exractions,implant surgery,all kind of bone and gum surgery,bone grafting,sinüs lifting,etc. in  modern clinic rooms .

 Reasons of tooth  extraction. Deep tooth decays 

  • Severe gum disease (bone loss), which has ruined too much of the supporting bone around the tooth.

.  For orthodontic treatment due to severe crowding (too many teeth for the space available) in order to make enough space for the remaining teeth to be nicely aligned.

  • Teeth which can not be saved by root canal treatment .
  • Fractured teeth
  • Insufficient space especially for the lower wisdom teeth (impacted third molars).

Surgical extractions 

 Surgical extractions normally require an incision, which means that the soft tissue around the tooth which is to be surgically removed has to be raised. Typically, a small amount of bone has to be removed around the impacted wisdom tooth. When the wisdom tooth lie more or less horizontally, the crown portion of the tooth might have to be removed as one piece or be split into a number of pieces – to be able to access and remove the remaining part of the tooth.

 What to expect after surgery

After the tooth has been removed, you may need stitches/sutures. Some stitches dissolve over time, and some have to be removed normally after a week to ten days. You will also be asked to gently bite down on cotton gauze placed over the wound to help stop bleeding.

In most cases, the recovery period after an uncomplicated tooth extraction lasts only a few days up to five to six days. The most important issue after an extraction is to preserve the formed blood clot.

Once a tooth has been extracted, a blood clot normally forms in the socket, usually within an hour. It is not uncommon that slight bleeding can be noticed up to 24 hours after the extraction. The wound over the dental socket takes about a week to heal. Thereafter, the socket will gradually fill in with gum tissue and bone over a period of about one to two months. Before bone has fully filled out the extraction site (alveol), it can at least take another six months.

The following will help to speed up the recovery:

  • In existance of pain, you take painkillers and antibiotics as prescribed by your dentist.
  • Wait until the following day before you start rinsing your mouth gently with anticeptic mouth wash several times a day to keep the surgical area clean.
  • Rinse 3-4 times a day with an antiseptic mouth wash.
  • Relax after surgery. Physical activity within the first two days after surgery may cause bleeding.
  • If you happen to be a smoker, try to avoid smoking – at least for the first few days.
  • Eat warm  and soft food for a couple of days in order to reduce the muscle activity in the chewing muscles, thereby reducing the risk for dislocating the blood clot.

The Dentists in our clinic have the right equipment and sterile environment in which to perform this type of procedure with the utmost care and your recovery can be fairly quick. In the case of surgical  extractions you may have some swelling after the procedure and discomfort that can be eased with over the counter painkillers and antibiotics.

 Sinus Lift Procedure

In order to  place the  implants successfully  we  need sufficient bone. In certain situations dentist need to perform specific procedures in order to create bone volume like  sinus lifting.

The maxillary sinuses are behind your cheeks and on top of the upper teeth. Sinuses are like empty rooms that have nothing at all in them. Some of the roots of the natural upper teeth extend up into the maxillary sinuses. When these upper teeth are removed, there is often just an egg shell thin wall of bone separating the maxillary sinus and the mouth. Dental implants need bone to hold them in place so when the sinus wall is very thin, it is impossible to place dental implants in this bone.

The dental implant surgeon enters the sinus from the side above where the upper teeth used to be. The sinus membrane is then lifted upward and donor bone is inserted into the floor of the sinus. After several months of healing, the bone becomes part of the patient’s jaw and dental implants can be inserted and stabilized in this new sinus bone.

The sinus lifting makes it possible for many patients to have dental implants that  is so important that years ago there was no other option other than wearing loose dentures.


Removable Dentures

Extensive edentulism makes fixed prosthetic restorations (bridges) impossible. To replace missing teeth and restore mastication capacity, removable dentures are used which can be removed from the mouth. Note that all teeth losses should be supplemented in a short time  after the extraction, because every single gap poses a threat to adjacent teeth. These tend to drift out of their position towards the gap. Long – term teeth loss leads to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) damage.

There are two main types of removable dentures: full or complete removable acrylic dentures (used in cases of complete edentulism) and partial removable dentures – conventional acrylic or metal based cast partial dentures (to replace one or several tooth loss).

Removable prothesis provide proper function and comfort for those patients who have no availability to have implants for some different reasons while still maintaining a natural appearance in a short period of time.


Inlays & Onlays

Inlay&onlay  restorations are  custom made materials  made of composite material, gold, or tooth-colored porcelain,zirconia,etc.    that are  made by a professional dental laboratory .They look like very similar to the natural tooth and are permanently cemented into the tooth by your dentist.

Inlays&onlays  can be utilized to conservatively repair teeth that have large defective fillings or have been damaged by decay or trauma.  They are an ideal alternative to conventional silver and composite fillings.  Also, they are more conservative than crowns because less tooth structure is removed for  the preparation of inlays.

As with most dental restorations, they are not always permanent and may someday require replacement.  They are highly durable and will last many years for good function and aesthetic.

Reasons for inlay&onlay restorations:

  • Broken or fractured teeth.
  • Cosmetic enhancement.
  • Decayed teeth.
  • Fractured fillings.
  • Large fillings.

Composite Fillings

Dental caries (tooth decay or cavity) is a permanently damaged area in the hard surface of the tooth. Tooth decay has its origin in a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissue of the tooth by bacterial fermentation of food debris in the dental plaque, which results in production of acid. Poor oral hygiene, frequent snacking and sipping of sugary drinks increase the speed with which the dental plaque is built up.

The bacterias produce acid in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates, especially sucrose (table sugar). The mineral in the teeth is sensitive to an increase in acidity from the lactic acid production of bacterias.. When the pH at the surface of the tooth drops below 5.5, there is demineralization, that is, mineral is lost from the tooth. Each time we eat or drink something, especially something containing sugar, a new acid attack occurs. Individuals with little saliva, especially due to radiation therapy in the head and neck area, which has led to destruction of the salivary glands, are particularly susceptible to dental caries, as they have much less possibility to reduce the effect of the acid attack due to severely reduced amount of saliva.

Tooth decay is one of the most common dental health problems. Cavities are especially common in children, teenagers and older adults, however; anyone who has teeth can get cavities, including infants. Once the caries has been removed, a filling is made to give the tooth back its original shape.

If cavities are not treated, they get larger and affect deeper layers of your teeth. It can lead to severe toothache, infection and ultimately in advanced stages, it might not be possible to save the tooth. Regular dental visits and good brushing and flossing habits go a long way toward preventing tooth decay.

 Composite Fillings

A composite (tooth colored) filling is used to repair a tooth that is affected by decay, cracks, fractures, etc.  The decayed or affected portion of the tooth will be removed and then filled with a composite filling.

There are many types of filling materials available, each with their own advantages and disadvantages.  You and your dentist can discuss the best options for restoring your teeth.  Composite fillings, along with silver amalgam fillings, are the most widely used today.  Because composite fillings are tooth colored, they can be closely matched to the color of existing teeth, and are more aesthetically suited for use in front teeth or the more visible areas of the teeth.

As with most dental restorations, composite fillings are not permanent and may someday have to be replaced.  They are very durable, and will last many years, giving you a long lasting, beautiful smile.

Reasons for composite fillings:

  • Chipped teeth.
  • Closing space between two teeth.
  • Cracked or broken teeth.
  • Decayed teeth.
  • Worn teeth.

How are composite fillings placed?

Composite fillings are usually placed in one appointment.  While the tooth is numb, your dentist will remove decay as necessary.  The space will then be thoroughly cleaned and carefully prepared before the new filling is placed.  If the decay was near the nerve of the tooth, a special medication will be applied for added protection.  The composite filling will then be precisely placed, shaped, and polished, restoring your tooth to its original shape and function.

It is normal to experience sensitivity to hot and cold when composite fillings are first placed, however this will subside shortly after your tooth acclimates to the new filling.

Today, many patients want to remove their amalgam fillings, which either have a silver color or appear all black. Most often the alternative is a composite filling; often referred to as a white filling. If a very large filling is needed in one of your back teeth (molars), where one generally bites with much more force, a composite filling might not be the best choice.

You will be given care instructions at the conclusion of your treatment.  Good oral hygiene practices, eating habits, and regular dental visits will aid in the life of your new fillings.

Advantages with composite fillings

  • Good aesthetics – since our dentist can blend shades to create a color nearly identical to that of the actual tooth. Composite is bonded to the tooth. Therefore, the remaining tooth structure is supported by the filling material, which helps to prevent fractures.
  • They cost less than porcelain inlays .
  • They are done usually  in one dental appointment.


Laminates  are very thin pieces of durable, tooth shaped porcelain that are custom made (for shape and color) by a professional dental laboratory.  They are bonded onto the front of teeth like a false nail to create a beautiful and attractive smile.

Laminates can completely reshape your teeth and smile.  They can often be alternatives to the crowns  in treating many dental conditions for aesthetic reason.

The  porcelain laminates can be made in a lighter color, so that the laminated teeth can be whiter than before.

  The laminates  are very durable and will last many years, giving you a beautiful long lasting smile but as  with most dental restorations,  they are not forever  and may someday need replacement.  

Porcelain laminates  are stain resistant.They  can last for many years like all well glazed porcelaine restorations.They really are a perfect option for;

Cosmetically, to create a uniform, white, beautiful smile.

Cracked and broken

Misshapen teeth.

Severely discolored or stained teeth.

Teeth that are too small or large.

Diastemas(natural spaces between the teeth)  and uneven spaces.

Worn or chipped teeth.

What does getting porcelain veneers involve?

The laminate treatment usually requires two visits to complete the process, with little or no anesthesia required during the procedure.  The teeth are prepared by lightly buffing and shaping the surface to allow for the thickness of the laminate.  A mold or impression of the teeth is taken and a shade (color) will then be chosen by you and the dentist.

On the second visit the teeth will be cleaned with special liquids to achieve a durable bond.  Bonding cement is then placed between the tooth and laminate and a special light beam is used to harden and set the bond.

Proper brushing, flossing and regular dental visits will make  the life of your new laminates longer.


Porcelaine Crowns & Bridges

A crown (or cap) is  used to cover the entire tooth surface for  restoring  the tooth  like  its original shape and size.  A crown protects and strengthens tooth structure that cannot be restored with fillings or other types of restorations. Crowns are necessary when fillings will not solve the problem due to the loss of substance in the tooth. Crowns are also used to restore partially fractured teeth or to cover badly shaped or discolored teeth.

Although there are several types of crowns, porcelaine crowns  (tooth colored crown) are the most popular, because they resemble your natural teeth.  They are highly durable and will last many years, but like most dental restorations, they may eventually need to be replaced.  Porcelain crowns are made to match the shape, size, and color of the teeth for  a natural, long-lasting beautiful smile.

Reasons for crowns:

  • Broken or fractured teeth.
  • Cosmetic enhancement.
  • Decayed teeth.
  • Fractured fillings.
  • Large fillings.
  • Tooth  that has  root canal treatment.
  • What does getting a crown involve?
  • A crown procedure usually requires two appointments.  Your first appointment will include shaping the teeth and taking several highly accurate molds (or impressions) that will be used to create your custom crown and a temporary crown which will stay on your tooth for approximately  until your new crown is ready.
  • While the tooth is numb, the dentist will prepare the tooth by removing any decay and shaping the surface to properly fit the crown.  Once these details are accomplished, your temporary crown will be placed with temporary cement and your bite will be checked to be sure about your  proper biting position. After shaping the tooth and preparing it for the new porcelaine crown you will have the temporary  plastic crown at the same day.
  • At your second appointment your temporary crown will be removed, the tooth will be cleaned, and your new crown will be carefully placed to ensure the spacing and bite are accurate.
  • You will be given care instructions and encouraged to have regular dental visits to check your new crown.
  • There are  a few different types of porcelain crowns like  e-max crowns,empress crowns,zirconia crowns,metal based porcelaine crowns,etc.

Metal- based  porcelaine  crowns

These crowns have a metal core, on top of which porcelain has been fused. The metal is first masked with an opaque layer of porcelain to give it a more tooth-like color, and then consecutive layers of normal porcelain are used to build up the final shape. The metal used is semi-precious or precious such as gold. Metal porcelain crowns are used when there is a need for high strength, normally in the molar region.

A PFM-crown can be made in such a way that the gum-portion of the crown has no metal at all. Instead this portion of the crown is made in porcelain. Therefore, only porcelain can be seen.
In a situation, where there is one or more teeth missing, a dental bridge literally bridges the gap. In its basic form, a dental bridge involves placing a crown on each tooth on either side of the missing tooth, with a tooth suspended between the two crowns. The two anchoring teeth are called abutment teeth. The suspended tooth is called a pontic. A dental bridge can also be supported by implants or even by a combination of natural teeth and implants.


A dental bridge is a fixed (non-removable) appliance and is an excellent way to replace missing teeth.

There are several types of bridges.  You and your dentist will discuss the best options for your particular case.  The “traditional bridge” is the most popular type and is usually made of porcelain fused to metal.  Porcelain fixed bridges are most popular because they resemble your natural teeth.  This type of bridge consists to two crowns that go over two anchoring teeth (abutment teeth) and are attached to pontics (artificial teeth), filling the gap created by one or more missing teeth.

Dental bridges are highly durable and will last many years, however they may need replacement or need to be re-cemented due to the conditions.

Reasons for a fixed bridge:

  • Filling the space of missing teeth.
  • Maintain facial shape.
  • Prevent remaining teeth from drifting out of position.
  • Restore chewing and speaking ability.
  • Restore your smile.
  • Upgrade from a removable partial denture to a permanent dental appliance.

What does getting a fixed bridge involve?

Getting a bridge usually requires two or more visits.  While the teeth are numb, the two anchoring teeth are prepared by removing a portion of enamel to allow for a crown.  Next, a highly accurate impression (mold) is made which will be sent to a dental laboratory where the bridge will be fabricated.  In addition, a temporary bridge will be made and worn for several days until your next appointment.

At the second visit, your permanent bridge will be carefully checked, adjusted, and cemented to achieve a proper fit.

You will receive care instructions at the conclusion of your treatment.  Proper brushing, flossing and regular dental visits will aid in the life of your permanent bridge.

Traditional bridges are made of either porcelain (ceramic) alone or porcelain fused to metal (gold, semi-precious or non-precious).

Full porcelain bridges

Porcelain bridges are dental bridges made completely of porcelain. The core (framework) in porcelain bridges is often zirconium, especially when bridges are long (covers much of the arch), when bridges have longer hanging sections or when bridges are being used in the molar regions, where the bite forces are higher. The reason is the exceptional hardness of the material. The zirconium is veneered (covered) with more conventional porcelain. When properly seated, a bridge in zirconium is nearly as strong as a metal-porcelain bridge. Short bridges (one tooth missing) can be made in the front region or on the teeth immediately behind the front teeth (bicuspids or premolars), in an even more aesthetic material, IPS e.max ceramic.

Metal porcelain bridges

Porcelain fused to metal bridges have metal on the inside and porcelain on the outside. The metal inside adapts perfectly to the teeth and provides strength and resistance to biting forces. The porcelain outside provides the beautiful appearance, matching the color and shape of your other teeth.

The main advantage of a metal-porcelain bridge is its strength and durability. If there is any uncertainty concerning the level of chewing forces used on the back teeth, a porcelain fused to metal bridge is often recommended.